History of Hazara (the great land) in Pakistan
Hazara (Urdu: هزاره) is a valley and region located in the NWFP of Pakistan. The name of the province as Pakhtoonkhwa is still under discussion in the Senate, and the people of Hazara are protesting against it. They are putting in the demand of a separate province named "Hazara". Until the year 2000 the region was an administrative subdivision of the province known as Hazara Division, headquartered at the city of Abbottabad. Hazara Division was the biggest division of N.W.F.P. until that time. However, the divisions were abolished in 2000, as part of an administrative shake up. Although the administrative division has been abolished by the government, the identity and name have been retained and used for other purposes. For example, the University of Hazara, based in Mansehra, provides higher education to people of the region. The election commission of Pakistan also groups the districts of Pakistan under the former divisions. Five districts make up Hazara; these are Abbottabad, Battagram, Haripur, Kohistan, and Mansehra.
Hazara has the major industry of NWFP, including TIP, Hattar Industrial state. This region is famous for Tarbela Dam Haripur, kakul military academy Abbottabad, tea plantation and best grade tobacco of Pakistan, in Mansehra. karakoram highway pass through Hazara, while not through rest of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa.
According to the local tradition Hazara obtained its name from the Hazara nation that originated in Afghanistan (Hazarajath). The Hazara came with Timur after his invasion to India.
In spite of Imperial Gazetteer's above-quoted views, modern historians and distinguished Indologists including Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee, Dr B. C. Law, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar, Dr M. Witzel, Dr M. R. Singh and Prof K. N. Dhar concur with Dr Stein's identification of modern Hazara with the ancient Sanskrit name Urasa
Evidence from 7th c Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang combined with earlier evidence from Mahabharata  attests that Poonch and Hazara District of Kashmir had formed parts of epic Kamboja and that the Kamboja rulers of this region observed republican system of government
In April, 2010, it was announced that through an amendment in the constitution, the name of North-West Frontier Province would be changed to Khyber Pakhtoonkhwaleading to protests across the Hazara region, where Hindko speakers are dominant as compared to the Pashto speakers. The announcement of the new name also lead to calls from Hazara for a new separate province.
Alexander the Great and Ashoka
Hazara remained a part of Taxila during the rule of the Maurya dynasty. Ashoka was the Governor of this area when he was a prince. After the death of Ashoka’s father, Bindusara, Ashoka inherited the throne and ruled this area as well as Gandhara. Today, the famous edicts of Ashoka, inscribed on three rocks near Bareri Hill, serve as evidence of his rule. These edicts also show that this area was a famous religious centre for pilgrims. The name Mansehra is a modified form of the name Maan Singh, who once ruled over this area.
Hazara has several places of significance for the Hindus related to the Pandavas.
“ 'There are the five Pandavas, the heroes of the Mahabharat favourite objects of worship in the east and sometimes addressed as the Panj Pir. Many are the legends current about these heroes and they are localised at quite a number of places. The Hill of Mokshpuri , just above Dunga Gali has an elevation of 9232 feet. Its name means 'the hill of salvation' and on its summit is a Panduan da Sthan, or place of the Pandavas, where it is said they were visited and tempted by Apsaras who still frequent the place . ”
In the 2nd century CE, a mythical king Raja Risalu, son of Raja Salbahan of Sialkot, brought the area under his control. The local people consider him as their hero and, even today, parents tell their children the stories of Raja Risalu and his wife Rani Konklan on winter nights. When a Chinese pilgrim, Hiun-Tsang, visited this area, it was under the control of Durlabhavardhana, the ruler of Kashmir.
The Turkish Shahi Dynasties ruled Hazara one after another. Among the Hindu Shahi dynasty rulers, Raja Jayapala is the best known. Mehmood of Ghazni defeated Raja Jayapala during his first campaign. However, there is no historical evidence that Mehmood of Ghazni ever visited or passed through Mansehra. After the fall of the Shahi dynasty, in the 11th century, the Kashmiris took control of this area under the leadership ofKalashan (1063 to 1089). From 1112 to 1120, King Susala ruled this area. In the 12th century, Asalat Khan captured this area but soon after Mohammad of Ghor's death the Kashmiris once again regained control of Hazara.
Amb and its surrounding areas of Hazara have a long history which can be traced to Alexander the Great's invasion of India. Arrian, Alexander's historian, did not indicate the exact location of Embolina, but since it is known that Aoronos was on the right bank of the River Indus, the town chosen to serve as Alexander's base of supplies may with good reason be also looked for there. The mention in Ptolemy's Geography of Embolima as a town of Indo-Scythia situated on the Indus supports this theory.
In 1854 General Abbott, the British frontier officer from whom Abbottabad, administrative centre of Hazara, takes its name, discussed his location of Aornos on the Mahaban range south of Buner. He proposed, as M. Court, one of Ranjit Singh's French generals had done before him in 1839, to recognize Embolima in the present village of Amb situated on the right bank of the Indus. It lies about eight miles to the east of Mahaban and is the place from which the Nawabs of Amb take their title.
In 1399, the great Muslim warrior Timur, on his return to Kabul, stationed his Turk soldiers in Hazara to protect the important route between Kabul and Kashmir. By 1472, Prince Shahab-ud-Din came from Kabul and established his rule over the region. Prince Shahab-ud-Din, a Turk of central Asian origin, founded the state and named it Pakhli Sarkar and chose Gulibagh as his capital. During the Mughal rule, these local Turkish chiefs acknowledged Mughal authority. In fact, Hazara (Pakhli) provided the main route to Kashmir and was the most commonly used route for Emperor Akbar to travel to Kashmir. During the last days of Emperor Akbar's rule, the Turkish Chief Sultan Hussain Khan revolted against the Mughals. He claimed that the Mughals were interfering with his internal affairs. After this complaint, he was exiled by the Mughals, but later was pardoned and given back his land. Now, descendants of these Turkish rulers live in village girwalBehali and some other villages of Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Haripur districts.
When Ahmad Shah Durrani expanded his kingdom to Punjab, Hazara also came under his control. Durrani considered it wise to rule the area through local tribal chiefs, like Saadat Khan and Faqir Khan of Garhi Habibullah. Saadat Khan was such an authoritative man amongst Swatis whereas Faqir Khan was the khakan of his Mughal tribe and they were considered to be the fighting machines, even disputed matters of Jadoons and Tanolis had been sent to them for rectification through jirgas. The Durranis' rule ended abruptly in the beginning of the 18th century.
The first quarter of the 18th century was miserable for the Turks. Their rule came to an end due to the decay of their vitality and the increasing aggression of the Pukhtoons. The most crucial attack was that of the Swatis in 1703, under the command of Syed Jalal Baba who was a son-in-law of last Turk ruler, Sultan Mehmud Khurd. During the absence of his father-in-law Syed Jalal Baba invited Swatis to invade Pakhli Sarkar. Being an insider, he provided crucial information to invading forces and succeeded in overthrowing his in-laws through his shrewd conspiracy. Turks had already became weak due to their internal feuds, as well. Swatis thus ousted the Turks from upper Hazara (Mansehra and Batagram) and captured it. By the time Gujjars, Awans, Turks, Tareens, Jadoons, Abbasis and Karlals captured lower Hazara (Abbottabad and Haripur).
The Tanolis, who founded a state named Amb, had already established their authority over Tanawal. The voluminous Urdu copy of the settlement report of Hazara compiled by Major Wace in 1872 contains many passages in its historical resume of the area. In a number of maps drawn at the time and enclosed in the report, showing Hazara under the Mughals and under the Durranis, the Amb state has been shown as Mulk-i-Tanawal. The original existence of that Mulk is as old as the middle period of the great Afghan invasions of India. Their leader Nawab Khan (Father of Painda Khan) never accepted the Durrani Rule and used to heavily tax the Durrani caravans which passed through the Mulk-e-Tanawal. He defeated the Durranis in battle but met his death at the hands of Sardar Azim Khan Durrani in 1818, who invited him to his camp and killed him by treachery. Upper Tanawal and Lower Tanawal, covering the greater part of Hazara, have been ruled by Tanolis for centuries.
Descendants of the former Turkish rulers of Hazara now live in the village of Behali, district Mansehra, and in some other villages of Abbottabad, Haripur and Mansehra.
Durrani rule had weakened considerably at the beginning of the 19th century. The Sikhs annexed Hazara in two stages. Lower Hazara became tributary to the Sikhs as soon as they wrested the Fort of Attock from the Durranis. Upper Hazara suffered a similar fate when the Sikhs took Kashmir from the Barakzais in 1819. The Sikhs fought many sanguinary battles with the turbulent tribes that inhabited this region.
However in 1845 the local populace, taking advantage of the problems in Lahore (the capital of the Sikh Empire), rose up in rebellion. They drove the governor of Hazara, Diwan Mulraj, to Hasan Abdal in 1846. However, with the conclusion of the first Sikh War, Hazara along with Kashmir was given to Raja Gulab Singh. But in 1847 the Raja gave back Hazara to the Lahore Darbar in exchange for land near Jammu, and Hazara passed into British control.
After the first Sikh War, the area was governed by Major James Abbott. Abbott managed to secure and pacify the area within a year. During the Second Sikh War Abbott and his men were cut off by the Sikh army from supplies and reinforcements from the rest of the British Army, but were able to maintain their position.
By 1849, the British had gained control of all of Mansehra. However, the western Pashtun tribes remained rebellious. These tribes included the clans of Allai, Batagram in the Nandhiar valley, and the tribes inhabiting both slopes of the Black Mountain of Hazara.
In 1852, after three years of relative peace, Zaman Shah of Kaghan turned against the British. James Abbot sent an expedition to Kaghan which deprived Zaman Shah of his territory and he was exiled to Pakhli plain. After four years the British forgave him and he was permitted to get back his lost territory.
The British sent many expeditions against the Pashtun tribes to crush the rebellion between 1852 and 1892, especially against the Black Mountains. Along with some parts of Balakot which are located near to the boundary of Azad Jammu & Kashmir including Neelum Valley to stop the resistance by Mughal tribes and those tribes were command by Faqir Khan of Lambian Pattian.
To maintain peace in the area the British also took preventive measures by co-opting the local rulers.
The British accepted the Independence of the Nawab of Amb; within his own territory and thus no writ of the British Government, civil or criminal, was ever enacted within the Tanoli State of Amb. The smaller Tanoli State of Phulra, which was granted by Painda Khan to his brother Madad Khan, was also ackhnowledged by the Britishers as a semi-independent Princely State. Thus the British Government agreed not to meddle with the affairs of the Tanoli territory of Hazara, with the mutual understanding that the Tanolis would not attack the British controlled territories.
The British divided Hazara District into three Tehsils (administrative subdivisions) : Mansehra, Abbottabad, and Haripur; and decided to annex it to the Punjab. In 1901, when the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) was formed, Hazara was separated from Punjab and made a part of NWFP. Throughout their rule in Mansehra, the British met fierce resistance from the local Pashtun tribes and declared martial law. Meanwhile, the people of Mansehra's many villages largely governed themselves. Many of Mansehra's citizens joined the Khilafat movement.
When the all India Muslim League started its movement for a separate land, In 1936 the first and founding meeting of Muslim league in hazara was convened at abbottabad at the residence of NOOR -UD -DIN QURESHI.In this meeting the leaders of all India Muslim league Nawab Bhadur Yar Jang, Mulana Shoukat Ali, Hamid badayuni and other came from India, the local people joined and struggled for liberation under the leadership of Noor-ud-din qureshi.while in mansera in the same year Muslim league was organised by Ali Gohar Khan and Hakim Abdul karim ,both were elected as first president and General sectrary of district Muslim league mansehra.Quaid-i-Azam. Their eventual victory culminated in the creation of Pakistan, an independent state for the Muslims of the South Asia.
Nawab Sir Muhammad Farid Khan (K.B.E) of Amb State had very good relations with The Quaid e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah and Nawabzada Liaqat Ali Khan. His contributions to the Pakistan movement have been acknowledged by letters from The Quaid e Azam. In 1947 the Nawab of Amb, Mohammad Farid Khan, acceded to Pakistan by signing the Instrument of Accession of his State, in favour of Pakistan. In 1969, the State was incorporated into the North-West Frontier Province and in 1971 the royal status of the Nawab was abolished by the Government of Pakistan.Pakistan movement and Politics
During British rule, the region of Hazara had formed part of the Punjab province, until the western parts of that province were separated to form the new North-West Frontier Province. The areas around Abbottabad and Mansehra became the Hazara District of Peshawar Division, whilst areas to the north of this became the Hazara Tribal Agency and the Kohistan Tribal Agency. Sandwiched between Hazara Tribal Agency and the Hazara district were the small princely states of Amb and Phulra. This system of administration continued until 1950, when these two small states were incorporated into the Hazara district.
From 1955 to 1970, the North-West Frontier Province became part of West Pakistan under the One Unit policy, with the Hazara district forming part of the Peshawar division of West Pakistan. On the dissolution of West Pakistan, the Hazara district and the two tribal agencies were merged to form the new Hazara division with its capital at Abbottabad. The division was initially composed of three districts (Abbottabad, Kohistan and Mansehra) but within a few years, Haripur district was spun off from Abbottabad District and Batagram District was spun off from Mansehra District.
In 2000, administrative divisions were abolished and the fourth tier districts were raised to become the new third tier of government in Pakistan.
Geography and climate
Hazara is bounded on the north and east by the Northern Areas and Azad Kashmir. To the south are the Islamabad Capital Territory and the province of Punjab, whilst to the west lies the rest of the North-West Frontier Province. The river Indus runs through the division in a north-south line, forming much of the western border of the division. The total area of Hazara is 18,013 km².
Because it lies immediately south of the main Himalaya Range, and is exposed to moist winds from the Arabian Sea, Hazara is the wettest part of Pakistan. At Abbottabad, annual rainfall averages around 1,200mm (47 inches) but has been as high as 1,800mm (70 inches), whilst in parts of Mansehra District such as Balakot the mean annual rainfall is as high as 1,750mm (68 inches). Due to its location on the boundary between the monsoonal summer rainfall regime of East Asia and the winter-dominant Mediterranean climate of West Asia, Hazara has an unusual bimodal rainfall regime, with one peak in February or March associated with frontal southwest cloudbands and another monsoonal peak in July and August. The driest months are October to December, though in the wettest parts even these months average around 40mm (1.6 inches).
Due to the high altitude, temperatures in Hazara are cooler than on the plains, though Abbottabad at 1,200m still has maxima around 32°C (90°F) with high humidity in June and July. Further up, temperatures are cooler, often cooler than the Northern Areas valleys due to the cloudiness. In winter, temperatures are cold, with minima in January around 0°C (32°F) and much lower in the high mountains. Snowfalls are not uncommon even at lower levels.
The population of the Hazara region was estimated to be over 4.5 million in 2005. The total area of Hazara is 18013 km²: See table below.
Hazara region: Statistics District Area (km²) Population
Abbottabad 1802 1 Batagram 1310 0.5 Haripur 1763 0.7 Kohistan 7581 0.6 Mansehra 5957 1.4
Demographics and Society
The area is dominated by the Híndko people, over 60% of the population speak the Hindko language as their mother tongue, while most of the rest speak Pashto as their mother tongue. Pashto (which forms a majority in the rest of the province) is predominant in Batagram, 60% of the population of Mansehra speaks Hindko while most of the remaining speak Pashto. Pashto and Kohistaniare spoken in [[Kohistan]. Swati Pakhtun are the major tribe in Mansehra District, Battagram districts. The majority of MPA and MNA belong to Swati tribe of Mansehra and Battagram.
Main Tribes of Hazara
The tribes in Hazara are Karlal, Utmanzai, Jadoon, Rajpoot, Gujjar, Awan, sheikh, Turk, Durrani, Tanoli, Dhund Abbasi, Syed,Swati, Kashmiri, Qureshi, Gakhar, Tareen,Mughal, Mashwani, Tahirkheli, Dilazak(Sub cast in Jadoons, Panni, Bib, Sarrara, Sulemani.
Afghan refugees, although predominantly Persian (including the Ghilzai and Durrani tribes), and other smaller groups are found throughout the Division. There is a considerable presence of Tajiks, Uzbeks (Mazar-e-Sharif Restaurant) and Hazara in the area.
The population of Hazara was estimated to be over 4.5 million in 2005.
In Government sector The University of Hazara provides higher education to people of the region.
In Public Sector COMSATS Institute of Information Technology,Frontier Medical college, Women Medical College, provides higher education to people of the region.
Hazara lies close to the crossroads formed by the river Indus and the Grand Trunk Road. The Karakoram Highway begins at the town of Havelian and goes north through the division towards China via the Northern Areas.
- Nawabzada Salahuddin Saeed Khan, Nawab of Amb (princely state) - ex MNA
- Major General Zaheer-ul-Islam Abbasi (Village Bagla Haripur) A notable figure who allegedly tried military coup against prime minister Banazir Bhutto.
- President Muhammad Ayub Khan (Field Marshal) - President of Pakistan (Rehana Haripur)
- Sardar Muhammad Yousuf (Mansehra) - Ex-MNA and Ex-District Nazim
- Sardar ShahJahan Yousuf (Mansehra) - MNA(current) Ex-Parliamentry Secretary Of Northern Areas
- S. Zaman Gujjar - Founder and Central Chairman of Gujjar Ittehad Council International - Siran Valley District Mansehra
- Barrister Javed Abbasi (District Nazim Abbottabad)
- Malik Amir Alam - Former Deputy Speaker N.W.F.P
- Khan Abdul Qayyum Khan - Former CM and President Muslim Leaque
- Lt Gen (r) Salahuddin Tirmizi- Former Corps Commander, Chief of Syeds of Kaghan, PML-N Leader
- Haider Zaman Khan district Nazim of Abbottabad
- Malik Habib-ur-Rehman - Nazim Havelian
- Mohammad Irfan - International renown Psychiatrist/Pioneer Psychiatrist of NWFP
- Peer syed Mohyuddin Mahboob Sajjada nasheen Khanka Mahboobabad Shareef Havelian Author,Leader,Chief of Kazmi Sadat,Scholar
- Raja Sikander Zaman - (Politician)
- Aman ullah Khan Jadoon (Former Federal Minister)
- Syed Ijaz hussain shah (journalist/news editor)
- Sardar Mehtab Ahmad Abbasi ex Chief minister
- Sardar Muhammad Mushtaq Khan Present MNA of Haripur
- Gohar Ayub Khan -ex Speaker National Assembly
- Mohammad Ayub Khan Tanoli, Ex Provincial Minister of Education & Law,also Lawyer of NWFP)
- Yasir Hameed - (International Cricket Player)
- Abdul Wahid Mir -(Director General Students Quality Circles Pakistan,Director of Pak Irish Rehabilitation Center)
- Nasir Rehman Karlal
- Sardar Bahader Khan ex Federal Minister
- Jalal-ud-Din (Jalal Baba) Ex- Minister interior
- Sardar Zain Mohammad Khan Member Legislative Assembly
- Mohammad Hanif Khan - former federal minister information
- M.Sardar Khan Advocate-Former Attorny General of Pakistan and Advocate General NWFP
- Ghullam Rabbani - Pioneer Doctor/Independence Leader Hazara Division
- Asghar Khan - Air Marshal and Chief Tareeq-e-Isteqlal
- Sardar Mohammad Aslam Senator
- Syed Qasim Shah - ex- Federal Minister
- Syed Mehtab Shah, writer, actor and director.
- Yousaf Ayub Khan-District Nazim Haripur & Ex NWFP Minister (More times)
- Omer Ayub Khan- Ex Federal Minister of Finance
- Mohammad Anwar Shahmim - ex-Air Chief Marshal Pakistan
- Ajaz Ali Durrani - Ex NWFP Minister
- Mohammed Iqbal Khan Jadoon - ex-Chief Minister
- Muhammad Saleem Khan Haripur Talokar- Ex Depty Commioner of Hazara Devision at British Rejim
- Maulana Ghulam Ghoos Hazarwi- most prominent political and religious leader
- Abdul Satar Khan Swati - Ex povinicial minister and religious leader
- Azam khan Swati - Business man and politician - District Nazim - Senator - Federal Minister
- Khan of Agror -grand Father of Waji-uz-zaman khan swati - political leader and family involved in independence movement with high secrifices
- Prince Nawaz Khan Eli Swati - Head of Eli State and politician
- Shaukat Ali Khan Swati Advocate - Religious and Political leader and member Executive body Jamat-e-Islami
- Mufti Mohammad Idrees (Quresh)- EX Minister NWFP ,Advocate General- Prominent Scholer and Politician
- Dr.Syed Mehboob researcher , columnist and writer working for the promotion of Hindko language
in Karachi also is chairman Hindko Qaumi Flahi Forum
- Mr. Justice Mohammad Bashir Jehangiri Swati - Chief Justice of Pakistan
- Khan Qayyum Khan Swati - Political leader and close friend of Matama Gandhi
- Habib ullah Khan Swati - Chief of Tribe and Ghari Habab ullah its name after him
- Baber Nasim Khan Swati - Chief of Tribe and Ex Minister
- Mir Mohammad Iqbal - Tarbela Dam Contractor and Tribe Leader
- Syed Muzamal Shah - Head of Khagan Valley and Ex Minister
- Shazada Gushtasib Khan - Ex Minister
- Anwar Qazi Swati - President Pakistan Supreme Court Bar Association (SCBA)\
- Ibrahim Khan Swati of Kotkey Mansehra - Freedom Fighter against British Rule
- Waqar Ayub Qureshi, Bureaucrat, Commissioner Hazara Division (2009 till date), Ex Head of US AID Pakistan, Ex additional secretary NWFP.
- Major General (r) Nawabzada Hameed-ud-Din Ex Director General Buget GHQ.
- Sardar Muhammad Yaqoob Khan, Ex-Deputy Speaker, National Assembly of Pakistan.
- Sardar Muhammad Raza Khan, Justice (Retired), Supreme Court of Pakistan.
- Sardar MUhammad Idrees, Ex-Minister for Local Government and Rural Development, NWFP.
- Manzoor Naazer, Researcher, journalist, writer and columnist. atifqayum journalist
- Sardar Aman Khan, lawyer, politician, think-tank.